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Protein purification is a series of steps designed to isolate a protein of interest from a mixture of other substances. The purification of proteins is very important for understanding the structure, function, and interactions of the protein of interest. The process includes the separation of the protein of interest from all other proteins as well as other substances that may be binding to it. SDS-PAGE and protein purification often go hand in hand however SDS-PAGE only gives a rough estimate of the amount of a protein in a mixture. In order to successfully complete this process one must follow a protein purification protocol. A protein purification protocol will contain a detailed set of instructions that, when followed, will allow you to purify the protein of interest. Some protocols involve a protein purification tag. A protein purification tag can give a protein properties that it wouldn’t normally have such as binding to a specific metal. Other protocols are specific to membrane protein purification. Several companies provide the necessary supplies for protein purification: Promega, Pierce, and Pall.
Professional Weather Stations for use in schools, labs and industrial applications. This instrument is designed to monitor conditions, forecast weather, and check environmental air parameters. The unit displays temperature, humidity, dew point, barometric pressure/pressure trend, weather forecast, wind direction/speed, wind chill, rainfall amount, and clock/calendar. The model displayed on the left has a serial data output which permits linking to a computer for storing all information. Stored data can then be placed into a permanent weather database for generating analysis, and studying weather trends.
A complimentary instrument in the study and monitoring of Meteorology is the Anemometer/Thermometer which measures air velocity and temperature. Readings are updated instantaneously and has a memory function which will recall the highest and lowest readings.
OpticsPlanet offers these and similar tools which prove to be beneficial for use in both the laboratory and classroom environment. Though I’m sure the novice hobbyist would also find them both educational and entertaining.
Please feel free to contact any of our knowledgeable staff for additional information or for assistance in selecting the best weather station for your needs.
The right tool for the right job! Test Tube Brushes seem to be one of those items you don’t really think about until you need it. I recently received orders from several labs. In each case, the tech ran out or had used the last remaining brush they had, beyond the life of the bristle. Needless to say, I end up placing some rush orders, which prompted me to create this blog as a friendly reminder to those of you who haven’t checked your stock of brushes in a while.
Standard lengths range from 8″ to 13″ with brush diameters from 3/4″ (1.9 cm) to 1-3/8″ (3.5 cm). Though there are longer and wider brushes available, including beaker and centrifuge brushes, which I’ll address in a future blog. Choice of bristle’s are nylon and natural and most come in packs of 10, which should keep you going for awhile.
Again, these brushes are ideal for cleaning test tubes and narrow mouth glassware. Rounded tuft at tip facilitates cleaning and protects the glassware.
The brush pictured to the right is an example of a test tube brush that has a Tufted End.
What is a protein? Most people would say that proteins are required for strength and muscle building. While this is true proteins have a structural purpose as well a functional one. Proteins speed up chemical reactions, fight bacteria, tranpsort substances such as oxygen, and they build other proteins to name a few of their functions. A protein is a compound made up of amino acids arranged in a linear chain. This is known as primary structure. The amino acids interact with each other via hydrogen bonding to form secondary structure. Tertiary structure is the overall shape of the protein molecule which involves the spatial relationship of the alpha helix and the beta sheet. The next level of protein structure is quaternary structure which refers to the interaction of multiple protein subunits. Many physiological responses are the result of protein interaction such as insulin binding to its receptor in the cell membrane. Serum proteins are proteins that exist in the plasma portion of blood. Immunoglobulin G is a serum protein involved in the response of the immune system to allergens. Researchers perform what’s called a protein assay to dermine protein concentrations of fluids like blood. Once the protein concentration has been determined doctors can more accurately diagnose a patient. Protein electrophoresis or gel electrophoresis is used to identify proteins by comparing samples to standards of known molecular weight. Promega and BD are well known for their protein reagents and assays.
A Vortex Mixer is actually a simple devise found in most laboratories. The phrase “Shaken not Stirred” comes to mind, though not sure how functional this would be for your next cocktail party. All kidding aside, it is designed to mix small vials of liquid. It consists of an electric motor, vertical drive shaft and a rubber cupped piece which is mounted slightly off-center. As the motor runs, the rubber piece oscillates rapidly in a circular motion. When you touch the vial or container to the rubber cup, the motion that is being created is transmitted to your container, creating a “vortex”.
The mixer is commonly found in most bio-science labs. Cell culture and microbiology labs will use the device to suspend cells, whereas a biomedical or analytical lab would use it to mix reagents and assays. The analog vortex mixers have a variable speed control from 300–3200rpm, which allows low rpm startup for gentle shaking or high-speed mixing for vigorous vortexing of samples. Units can be operated in touch mode when depressing the cup head or in a continuous mode.
Muiltitube Vortexers, like the one pictured to the right, are designed to hold up to 50 tubes at one time. The top of the tubes are held securely, while the bottom are allowed to move freely. This vortexer is supplied with a foam rack to accommodate 12mm tubes. There are foam racks for other tube sizes that are readily available as an accessory.
MSA, manufacturer of Safety Equipment and in this case, Safety Caps, offer a line of NFL V-Guard Helmets with your favorite team logo. What a great way to support your team and at the sametime, protect yourself from flying beer bottles while attending the game. (Sorry, Bad Joke).
The helmets offer superior, quality comfort and more workers would be inclined to wear them. These stylish Specialty V-Gard ® Caps feature MSA’s 1-Touch® Suspension and slots to accept MSA V-Gard Cap Accessories. The caps are available in eye-catching logos of every NFL team.
Applications required for wearing protective head gear include:
- Food Processes
- Asbestos Abatement
ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2009 (Class E, Type I) CSA Z94.1-2005 (Class E, Type I)
For a list of available logo’s which seem to cover every NFL Team and assistance in placing your order, please contact any of our associates here at OpticsPlanet.
The Coulter principle is used to count particles suspended in an electrolyte, in a flow cell this would be flow cytometery. This principle applies to cell counting in hematology as well as any small particle counting. Not only are the cells and particles counted but the sizes of the cells and the distribution of the sizes are also determined. The suspended particles are passed through an orifice and an electric charge is passed along the orifice. The change in impedence as the particles pass through is directly related to the volume of the particle. Coulter counters have been available from Beckman Coulter since 1997. A new automated electronic cell counter based on the Coulter principle is being marketed by Orfl0 and is called the Moxi-Z.
The Coulter principle is a more accurate way to count cells than visually. Also the cells do not need to be dyed as they do for cell counting instruments based on visualization. Particle counters using the Coulter principle can count any type of small particles (5 – 25um), not just cells. The particles must be suspended in a conducting solution.
What do laundry detergent, biological weapons, beer, contact lens solution, solving the O.J. Simpson murder trial and digestion all have in common? They all involve and depend on the work of enzymes. An enzyme, in most cases, is a protein that catalyzes or increases the rate of a chemical reaction. How does this work? The biochemistry behind enzymatic activity is complex but to put it simply, an enzyme creates a different environment in which a chemical reaction takes place. The chemical reaction takes place in a region of the protein known as the active site. In this active site the enzyme binds to a substrate and can alter the ph and form bonds with the substrate in order to produce products. Enzymes play an important role in molecular biology (the area of biology that focuses on the interaction of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis). Restriction enzymes, also referred to as DNA enzymes, slice DNA in a specific location. This allows forensic scientists to compare blood left at crime scenes with the blood of suspects. Companies like Promega and Mediatech provide enzymes and reagents used in molecular biology laboratory techniques. Industrial enzymes are used in processes such as the brewing of beer and food processing. Some nerve agents used by the military include an inhibitor that ceases the activity of certain enzymes. Enzymes are used in a wide range of applications and have changed the way we produce products and fight enemies.
Well it is that time of year when dealing with the winter elements can be a challenge. Given the fact that the temperatures here in Chicago have been in single digits with windchills -20 degrees, sales of the Kimberly Clark Windguards by Jackson Safety are up. They’re going like Hot Cakes. Excuse the pun.
Although not very fashionable, this will protect you from the elements.
Designed to keep the wind out and at the same time, traps warmth. Knitted, flame-resistant, treated polyester meets 16 CFR 1610, Class 1 requirements. High-visibility color. Fits over most safety caps and full-brim styles. Warmth for temperatures ranging from 32 to 0° F (O to –20° C).
Again this is ideal for very cold environments. The Full head & neck liner with wide wraparound collar are designed to be Universal for fitting all head sizes Leather/Nomex® tabs attach to hard hats which provides protection from electrical arc energy exposure. The 100% Nomex® outer shell maintains FR protection throughout the life of the product.
Flame resistant inner shell maintains flame resistance through 25 industrial washes or 50 domestic washes.
The Red Plaid Shirt is optional. (just kidding).
For additional information or to place an order, please contact our staff here at OpticsPlanet.
Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography is related to HPLC (High Performance or High Pressure Liquid Chromatography) but uses smaller particle sizes (less than 2 μm.) and smaller diameter columns. The efficiency of HPLC separation is inversely related to particle size. Unfortunately the smaller the particle size the higher the back pressure. UPLC Systems are now being designed with columns and mobile phase pumps to accommodate this higher pressure (typically 20,000 psi vs. 6000 psi for HPLC). The advantages of UPLC is shorter run times (4 minutes vs. 30 minutes) and increased separation with taller and narrower peaks. The short run times indicate how small the column volumes are. The instrumentation must also be designed with much smaller volumes; for example injection volumes go from 20µl to less than 2µl. Specialty fittings (ferrules, nuts) have been developed to withstand the higher pressures in UPLC. The high pressures require extremely high quality tubing with specially cut and polished ends. The detectors – UV, fluorescence, evaporative light scattering (ELS) – must be designed with smaller volumes. In HPLC peak widths are typically 20 seconds so a data sampling rate of 1 point per second is suitable; with UPLC peak widths of only 1 0r 2 seconds the data sampling rates must be increased to up to 40 points per second for reproducible integration. The UPLC systems price is 40 to 100% more than HPLC systems but the increase in sample throughput is 10 times. For a lab considering another HPLC system to accommodate higher sample loads the UPLC may be the most cost effective instrumentation. In labs where HPLC is used only occasionally or the detection limits of conventional systems are adequate the UPLC system would be not be the cost effective choice.